• Rahasia dan Tips untuk Menang Bermain Capsa Poker Pkv

    Rahasia dan Tips untuk Menang Bermain Capsa Poker Pkv

    Rahasia dan Tips untuk Menang Bermain Capsa Poker Pkv – Seorang pemain yang ingin memiliki peredam dalam permainan tidak mudah untuk menyelesaikan pemutar untuk menyelesaikan kekuatan yang harus tahu jenis strategi matang untuk menang dalam permainan capsa http://180.215.200.21/, lalu membaca secara rinci apa itu taktik. Sebagai berikut:

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  • Do Exercises to Win at Dominoqq online

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  • Playing Using Pkv Servers On Dominoqq At Get Big Win

    Playing Using Pkv Servers On Dominoqq At Get Big Win

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    1. The registration process in PKV agents is an important step in gambling
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    1. Reasons for registering PKV Games as an important step in playing gambling
      As one of the important things that is done by gambling players, especially beginners, there are several reasons why online gambling players need to pay close attention to the process of registering with online gambling games. The following is an explanation of the important reasons gambling players must pay attention to the list process properly.

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    1. Reasons for registering PKV Games as an important step in playing gambling
      As one of the important things that is done by gambling players, especially beginners, there are several reasons why online gambling players need to pay close attention to the process of registering with online gambling games. The following is an explanation of the important reasons gambling players must pay attention to the list process properly.
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  • Teaching the New Jim Crow

    As discussed in a previous post “But we have a Black President!” teaching and discussing social stratification and inequality can be a challenge. A recent best selling and award-winning book, “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness” by Michelle Alexander, addresses these challenges as they relate to the criminal justice system. Alexander explains that “the book’s main argument—that the stunning, unprecedented rise in U.S. incarceration during the past 30 years marked the birth of a new system of racial and social control reminiscent in many respects of Jim Crow segregation.” In her book, she documents how the legal system of the United States works to construct and maintain racial disadvantages.

    Teaching the New Jim Crow

    Michelle Alexander recently coordinated with the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance program in releasing a Teacher’s Guide for The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The guide gives multiple suggestions for lessons, as well as a wealth of resources for in-class exercises, discussions and readings. The first lesson prepares students to discuss the often uncomfortable topics of race and racism with the following objectives:

    • Students will reflect on their own comfort level when talking about race.
    • Students will distinguish between intent and impact and reflect on what it means in the context of class discussions about The New Jim Crow.
    • Students will describe how stereotypes inform our implicit biases and how implicit bias impacts our interactions.
    • Students will establish norms and learn strategies for having open and honest conversations about the content of The New Jim Crow.

    This introduction prepares students for 9 more lessons based on excerpts from the book, and related classroom exercises and discussions that bring students through a history of racialized social control from slavery and Jim Crow, to the current state of mass incarceration. The final lesson, “The Fire This Time,” focuses on students’ thinking about and taking action regarding the question “What is needed to end mass incarceration and permanently eliminate racial caste in the United States?”

    While the curriculum is designed for high school students, the lessons could be easily adapted for the undergraduate, or even graduate level.

  • Boundary Violations between Prison Staff and Inmates: The “Orange is the New Black” Effect

    Every semester, I teach an Ethics and Criminal Justice course for our Criminal Justice minor. Several semesters ago, I revised my final exam to include the following prompt:

    You are a corrections officer at minimum security prison camp. You discover that one of your co-workers has been having a romantic and sexual relationship with one of the prisoners for six months. You know this is against the rules, and that both the inmate and your co-worker will face serious consequences for engaging in an inappropriate relationship. If you blow the whistle on your co-worker, she will lose her job and could be criminally charged.

    Following the prompt, I asked students two questions. 1) Is it more important to be loyal to your fellow officer or to be a whistleblower? Why? And, 2) what do you think is the right thing to do in this situation? Why?

    Over the course of the past three semesters, 91 students have responded to this exam question. I recently revisited all of the exam responses. For the second question concerning what students believed was the right thing to do, the responses fell into four categories: do nothing (20%); talk to your co-worker and try to persuade her to stop the relationship (7%); talk to your co-worker and tell her if she does not stop the relationship and/or turn herself in; you will report her behavior to the administration (24%); and, finally, half of students (50%) believed that automatically turning your co-worker in was the right thing to do.

    Prior to revisiting these exam responses, I would have estimated that the number of students who believed reporting their co-worker’s behavior was the right thing to do was much lower than it actually was. I think this was due in part to my surprise that so many students did not think this was a major or serious violation by prison staff.

    For example, close to 30% of student respondents believed the right thing to do was to not report the behavior under any circumstance. Across responses, students failed to comprehend the inherent harm embedded in a sexual relationship between prison staff and an inmate. In fact, one response proceeded along the lines of (paraphrase) “I would check to make sure the inmate isn’t being harmed. If they were being harmed I would report, but as long as there is no danger to the inmate, I would do nothing.”

    There are a number of reasons why an inappropriate relationship between a staff member and an inmate are harmful, both to the inmate and to facility security, even if both participants are seemingly willing to engage in a sexual relationship. Aside from the unique harms of these relationships in the prison context, it is clearly a violation of professional decency, just as a sexual relationship between a professor and student, or a counselor and patient are patently unprofessional.

    Before discussing the problems with sexual relationships between staff and inmates, I think it is important to speculate why students (and perhaps many other members of the community) do not recognize the potential dangers these relationships pose. I would attribute much of these attitudes to media depictions of prison life, specifically, Orange is the New Black. In this extremely popular Netflix show, one of the central storylines involves a romantic and sexual relationship between a female inmate, Dayanara Diaz, and a corrections officer, John Bennett. Interestingly, the relationship between Diaz and Bennett is presented as one of the more genuine and romantic relationships among the plethora of sexual and romantic encounters depicted in the show. The fact that one is the keeper and the other is the kept is simply presented as a minor obstacle for these star-crossed lovers to overcome. Because the show is so popular among my students, and because it really fails to highlight the major problems of a relationship of this type, I would anecdotally attribute (at least part of) the distribution of exam responses to the influence of this show.

    Far from being harmless infatuation or romance, inappropriate sexual relationships, or, as Marquart and colleagues (2001) term them, boundary violations, have serious consequences, both for incarcerated individuals and for prison operations. It is important to recognize that I am exclusively discussing relationships where inmates are seemingly willing participants (note, I have not used the words consent or consensual in regards to these relationships). The harms surrounding forcible sexual assaults perpetrated by staff against inmates are much more clearly understood.

    First, the relationship between captor and captive is inherently coercive. The power differential between guards and inmates has serious implications regarding the legitimate capacity of prisoners to consensually engage in a sexual relationship. Correctional officers have ultimate control over inmates’ access to food, water, and every other basic resource, creating a situation in which inmates may not be able to easily refuse sexual advances by corrections officers.

    In addition, once sexual activity is initiated, prisoners may not have the freedom or ability to stop specific sexual acts, or to stop the sexual encounter should they wish to do so. For example, in 2009, an Oklahoma prisoner told a corrections officer about her sexual fantasy of being with two men at the same time. The officer and one of his co-workers then entered her cell, and they began to have sex. When the female prisoner was finished, she stood up to end the encounter, but one of the guards forced her head back down and told her to “shut up, and bend over, bitch” (Hogan, 2015).

    Inmates may also feel coerced into sexual relationships with staff in exchange for resources that are or may be limited by corrections officers. Conversely, prison guards can take advantage of inmates who want access to resources or favorable treatment by staff (Marcum and Castle, 2014). Thus, what appears to be voluntary sexual encounters may actually be coercive and threatening. This can lead to feelings of powerlessness and helplessness among inmates, even in contexts broader than the relationship, such as institutional disciplinary decisions or other disputes between staff and inmates (Blackburn, et al., 2011).

    On the other hand, voluntary sexual relationships between staff and inmates also pose potential security risks to facilities as well. As most prison systems forbid sex between staff and inmates, once an officer and inmate are involved in a relationship, the inmate can blackmail the officer for things they may want. Instances of corrections officers bringing in cell phones, drugs, weapons, and other contraband items because of sexual relationships have all been documented (Dial & Worley, 2008). One of the more recent and prominent examples involved a prison staff member in New York who developed a romantic relationship with an inmate. Staff member Joyce Mitchell smuggled in a drill bit and a hack saw that allowed inmates Matt Smith and David Sweat to escape. Smith and Sweat were on the run for 22 days in June of 2015. Sweat was eventually recaptured, but Smith was shot and killed by border patrol agents.

    Most, if not all correctional departments, have strict regulations against sexual relationships between staff and inmates, and the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) establishes these relationships as criminal acts on the part of prison workers. Most cases of inappropriate relationships simply end in the termination of prison staff (Dial & Worley, 2011); however, criminal convictions and prison sentences are not unheard of, especially in high profile cases. Joyce Mitchell, for example, may serve up to seven years in prison for her role in the escape described above.

    Because of the concerns related to inmate well-being and facility security, prison administrators should recognize the harms involved and seriously respond to all instances and allegations of inappropriate sexual relationships. It may be prudent to consider expanding criminal prosecutions of staff members who engage in sexual relationships with inmates.

    In addition, media depictions of staff-inmate sex as romantic and charming should be countered at every opportunity, in an academic setting or otherwise. The exam questions described above are contained on the final exam, and thus, I do not have the opportunity to discuss and unpack student responses in class. However, revisiting these exams underscores the responsibility that I, and other criminal justice educators, have to highlight the harms inherent in staff-inmate sexual relationships about which there may be little awareness.

    Benjamin Meade, PhD
    Justice Studies Department
    James Madison University

    References:
    Blackburn, A.G., Fowler, S.K., Mullings, J.L., & Marquart, J.W. (2011). When boundaries are broken: Inmate perceptions of correctional staff boundary violations. Deviant Behavior, 32(4), 351-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639621003748837.

    Dial, K., & Worley, R.M. (2008). Crossing the line: A quantitative analysis of inmate boundary violators in a Southern prison system. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 69-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12103-007-9015-x.

    Hogan, M.J. (2015). If Orange is the New Black, is coercion the new consent? An analysis of the Tenth Circuit’s decision to allow guards to use an inmate’s alleged consent as a defense to a sexual abuse allegation. Washburn Law Journal, 54(2), 425-450. http://contentdm.washburnlaw.edu/cdm/ref/collection/wlj/id/6543.

  • The Koch Epidemic

    The criminal justice system is at a critical juncture. With the untimely passing of arguably one of the most influential conservative Supreme Court justices in United States history, and the potential for the next President to nominate possibly four justices to the court, the system is poised for a major shift. Couple this with the growing debate over the death penalty, mass incarceration, police brutality, and corporate criminality, among many others, and the implications become even more far-reaching.

    From the bowels of social media, where racism and misogyny are not only tolerated but encouraged, to the meetings of corporate billionaires, where criminal justice legislation is bought and paid for, the debate over “justice” rages on. Whether we perpetuate the highly fruitless “discussions” on Facebook and Twitter, or we ignore the often transparent attempts of wealthy campaign contributors to shift political influence, we are all responsible for what could be a decade, or more, of major criminal justice reform. That is why we should all take solace in the fact that the newest effort to further ally the interests of the corporate, and often criminal, elite with criminal justice legislation is being confronted.

    In January, Charles Koch, of the famed billionaire Koch brothers, met with conservative donors to garner support for his continued foray into the realm of criminal justice reform. This comes on the heels of several meetings throughout 2015 between representatives of Koch Industries and White House officials. The goal in all of these meetings was to discuss the bi-partisan backed criminal justice reform efforts that are currently maneuvering their ways through both the House and the Senate.

    To the casual observer this may seem an appropriate step to take in fixing what many consider to be a broken system. However, what several media outlets and political watchdog groups are pointing out, is that the efforts of Koch Industries seem less of a mission to curb mass incarceration and over criminalization, and more of a thinly veiled plot to ensure that future prosecutions of the corporate sector never come to fruition.

    Both the Senate and the House will vote in 2016 on criminal justice reform legislation. While the bills in both houses are being backed by Koch Industries affiliates it is the addition of a provision within the House of Representatives version of these efforts that is highly disconcerting. In November 2015, the Criminal Code Improvement Act (H.R. 4002) “cleared the [House Judiciary] committee by a voice vote without any amendments addressing complaints” (Huffington Post). Included within H.R. 4002 is the long-sought after, and Koch Industries supported, alteration to the mens rea standard for corporate criminality.

    What this bill would effectively do is give corporate executives in particular, the ability to simply plead ignorance of the law-violating behavior, as well as ignorance of the law in general. As if it were not difficult enough for prosecutors to bring criminal charges against individual actors within a corporate structure H.R. 4002, if passed, would force prosecutors to prove that individuals within a corporation “knew, or had reason to believe, [their] conduct was unlawful” (H.R. 4002).

    This would destroy the government’s ability to bring charges against even the most egregious corporate offenders. Charges of negligence and reckless would essentially be eliminated, and the idea of a corporate scapegoat would not only be encouraged but quite literally codified into the federal legal code.

    Let us be clear on one thing, this is not the first, and will certainly not be the last attempt by corporate interests to influence the legality of business practices, and specifically the culpability of those in charge. What makes this case all the more disturbing however, is the sleight of hand chicanery that has been allowed to make it this far under the umbrella of legitimate justice reform. While Koch Industries representatives and Charles Koch himself continue to say that this part of the criminal justice reform efforts is not particularly important to them, it is the Koch supported organizations such as the American Legislative Education Council and the Texas Public Policy Foundation that have been pressing for this exact change in the intent standard for quite some time.

    As we become further and further removed from legitimate criminal justice policy discussion, it is only a loud and boisterous call from the American people that can prevent corporate cronyism from over taking what little hold we have left on an ailing system. While it is true that the criminal justice system is in desperate need of an overhaul, let us not be fooled in to thinking that the needs of our nation’s victims and prisoners are represented by the heads of major corporations. The “too big to fail” mentality cannot be allowed to spill over into the “too big to be prosecuted” standard.

    Timothy J. Holler, PhD
    Department of Criminal Justice
    University of Pittsburgh-Greensburg